Ceremony for the Total Liberation of 6,000 Years of Providential History
Sun Myung Moon
April 4, 2002
Chung Pyung, Korea
On April 4, 2002, at twenty-two minutes and twenty-two seconds past ten o’clock in the evening (22:22:22) of the 22nd day of the second month (lunar calendar) in the second year of Cheon Il Guk, True Parents held the Ceremony for the Total Liberation of 6,000 Years of Providential History at East Garden, New York. In addition to Father’s two prayers (the first of which appears below) and speech, the ceremony included the reading of a new message from Heung Jin nim that had been received at Chung Pyung earlier in the day.
We must break down the walls of han that have been erected throughout history in the spirit world and the physical world. True Parents came to earth and have made right all the conditions that had to be indemnified in the Old Testament Age, New Testament Age and Completed Testament Age. We have liberated You from Your bitter feelings, and, through the blessing of liberation, indemnified all the sorrowful history caused by the love, life and blood lineage of the false parents in the garden of Eden. Standing in the position to offer the Total Living Offering, we have established Cheon Il Guk. We are truly grateful for Your allowing us to meet this age of the new, historic, great transition, and the age of the great blessing when our ancestors in the heavenly world and the descendants in the physical world, as the blessed families all together with one heart, one body and one mindset, can serve the Parents of Heaven and Earth.
We are truly grateful for Your giving us the blessing of liberation, enabling us to create a world transcending religions, transcending nations and transcending races through the grace of the blessing, centering on Heung Jin, together with Young Jin, Hee Jin and Hye Jin, along with the four great saints, sages, and those people in the spirit world who made great contributions for the providence throughout Christian history that has bound together many different religious denominations and groups, and also the NGOs.
Centering on God and together with True Parents, we are all taking responsibility for liberation. We should carefully prepare and make ourselves ready to complete the conditional standard that is one with the original standard, and to move in the direction of harmony. We should fully indemnify the history in which the spiritual and physical worlds did not become one with or support True Parents. We can indemnify the entire failure of the archangel, Lucifer, by absolutely obeying and surrendering before the standard of the perfected Adam. Please lead us with the power to liberate all races, on the foundation that I have paved the highway of light that can directly connect hell, paradise and the heavenly kingdom in the spirit world.
As the blessed families on earth have expanded, You have united the blessed families in the heavenly world. The Cain side realm of the blessing has changed the positions between the brothers before the Abel side realm of the blessing. God should be the King of Kings and be the master of the blessing on earth. We must rediscover the ideal world of creation of love. Humans can offer complete restoration in front of God, thanks to True Parents. You have established Cheon Il Guk with the establishment of God’s kingship in the spiritual and physical worlds, in the process of settling down our home nation on earth, which is our final mission. You have realized the age of liberation of the autonomous nation [Jaju Guk] with the realm of victory and the age of liberation of the subject nation, with the realm of victory in the heavenly world and on earth. We are truly grateful for Heavenly Father’s grace enabling us to set up the conditions to surmount the hills and arrive at a world of unification, and proclaim it accordingly.
In the second year of Cheon Il Guk, we have set the day and time of the blessing at 22 minutes and 22 seconds after 10 o’clock in the evening (22:00). Central personages from Korea and Japan have gathered here in America to celebrate together with all the spirit people who are blessed in the spirit world, the four saints and the four of my physical children, together in unity. The central figures of the blessing in the religious world, major leaders of denominations, central figures of various religions should be united in one direction, one flow. We truly want to offer this holy liberation ceremony of total indemnity in this age of reclamation and reorganization.
We stand within the boundary of God’s kingship with the Parents of Heaven and Earth. We have a heart of absolute faith, absolute love and absolute obedience. Each of our complete families must be united with one heart, one determination and one body centering on the destined bond of parents and children, husbands and wives and brothers and sisters. As we allow people here to participate in this ceremony as one people and as one family of joy that can inherit the heavenly kingdom of liberation on earth and in heaven, let this holy ceremony indemnify all things in heaven and on earth, in this place centered on God. Please accept our offering. Offering congratulations on this day, I offer this in the name of True Parents! Amen. Amen. Amen.
Restoration means restoration through indemnity. You cannot restore things by doing nothing. You have to pay indemnity. If one commits a sin, he must pay the price to atone for it. One must pay the price to wash away one’s sin. That is called indemnity. You must wash your sins off through indemnity. If you fall in this way, you must pull yourself the other way. You cannot restore your sins without paying the price.
Because people can restore things only by paying the right price, the history of restoration has been prolonged until now. God cannot do it for us. If God could have done it, he would have done it without bothering to set up indemnity conditions. However, He would have had to deny everything He had accomplished to do that. That means, he would have had to destroy the entire cosmos. He could not do so, therefore, He had to keep things the way are and to have us follow the principle of restoration through indemnity to go back to the original state.
To restore yourselves, you must clean away your sins with a degree of intensity equal to that sin. You must wash off the stains of sin. You need to put personal effort into washing your sins away. You need an object for the condition in order to pay indemnity. People have not understood about the providence of salvation. They have not known about offerings and objects for the conditions of indemnity. They have not known until now. That was why primitive people sacrificed other people or animals as offerings. They did all kinds of things. All the things in the world that should have been protected by God’s love and that should have lived together with God in harmony had to shed blood after the fall. They had to shed blood! Because false love, false life and false lineage came into this world, blood had to be shed.
Because our blood became stained, blood had to be extracted from the sacrifices. That is why one must cut sacrificial offerings in half. One must divide offerings into God’s side and Satan’s side. However, God’s side is only one part out of ten in this world. Nine parts out of ten belong to Satan. In Oriental philosophy, the number nine means “bad.” Satan took more than two thirds of this world and God has less than one third. Out of that one third, less than thirty percent-even less than ten percent-belongs to God. That is why people are asked to offer a ten-percent tithe. That is why the ten-percent tithe is a must in your life of faith. You must take great care of the things you use in your day-to-day life. With a sincere heart towards your possessions, you must offer ten percent of the money you make monthly as a pure offering. When you receive your monthly salary, if the money you receive is not in new bills, you should go to the bank and change them to new bills. You should offer new bills as your offering in church.
Those who offer their ten-percent tithe with sincerity will never perish. Heavenly fortune will always follow those people. Satan cannot remain with them. That is why you need to tithe ten percent. In your life of faith, you need to offer your heart as well as your possessions. You must offer the most precious things you have from your possessions. You must offer the most precious materials as representing your own life. You must offer the most precious thing or the thing you love the most before God. For a woman, her rings, diamonds, gold and other jewels don’t belong to her. Ten percent of them belong to God. The remaining ninety percent doesn’t belong to her either. She should leave them behind to her nation and the world.
If people leave their possessions to their own physical children, their children will end up fighting over the inheritance. To come closer to the ideal world, there should be fewer and fewer people who bequeath their assets to their physical children. In the future, there will come a time when the assets of people in public positions will naturally belong to the nation. Do you understand what I mean? You should not bequeath your assets to your children. True patriots do not bequeath their assets to their own physical children but to the nation. When you live a prosperous life thanks to the blessing of Heaven, you should understand that God gave you a portion of the blessing that was supposed to be given to your nation. Because you have what originally would have belonged to your nation, when you depart from this world, you must leave it behind to the nation. When I look at American society, I see that many leave their assets not to their own physical children but rather to a public cause. Such a trend is inevitable considering how God’s will is unfolding.
I am the same way. That is why I won’t spend money for my own children when money is available to me. I use money for the nation and the world. The reason I spend money for the world is for the sake of the future descendants of my nation and of the world. As far as the Unification Church members are concerned, I always put you, the members, first, disregarding my own children’s situations. You should then feel responsible to care for and protect my children.
Why is that so? It was the Archangel’s responsibility to take care for and raise Adam. You are in the position of Cain, the direct children of the Archangel. Whether or not my own children live good lives really depends on how well you take care of them. Because you could not do so, my family has met with difficulty. Did you realize that?…
Even if Satan takes away my own children, I will find them and bring them back. Don’t you see such things happening now? Heung Jin gun, Young Jin gun, Hee Jin gun, and Hye Jin yang are presently in the spirit world. One daughter and three sons are gone. Three different sons are gone.
Hye Jin left us eight days after she was born. Although she only lived only eight days, she established something in the spirit world that she could not have done had she lived on earth longer. Numerous infants have gone to the spirit world so far. Could they have been blessed before? No. Because True Parents came to the world, cut off the satanic lineage, and fulfilled all the indemnity conditions, the blessed families in the spirit world raised those who had gone to the spirit world as infants until they were sixteen years old and blessed them.
Little children can grow up in the spirit world. When their parents really take care of them in their hearts, celebrating their birthdays every year, they can grow. When the family in the physical world invest their heart and soul, the little ones in the spirit world can grow. Also, if they have good ancestors for many generations, they can grow with the supervision of those good ancestors. Those who grew up to be sixteen or older have been blessed. There are tens of billions of them.
When you look at 36-couple blessed families, there were couples who were already married, and another kind of couple, like Noah’s couple. What was it about Noah’s family? Noah could not settle on the earth. He went only half way. He made conditions only on earth and left. So, there are families like his that consummated their relationship and then broke it off, never able to live together as a family. That is the second kind of family. The third kind of family is made of pure virgins. The third kind of family is like the family of Jacob. Jacob’s twelve sons established themselves as historic families. They are the corner stone ancestors. There were previously married couples, conditionally married couples and virgin couples. The third type is like Jacob’s twelve tribes, those who completely settled on earth.
The virgin married couples are the center. That is why the central families of the 36-couple blessed families are the Jacob type families. Those couples who were already married represented the Old Testament Age. Those who had had just some of the conditions of marriage represented the New Testament Age and the virgin couples represented the Completed Testament Age. However, neither the already married couples, nor the engaged couples nor even the virgin couples could establish families with God’s blessing on earth on their own. True Parents came, discovered all the heavenly laws, paid indemnity to separate them from Satan and created the conditions for them to settle without Satan’s interference. As a result, Satan cannot accuse those families even if they go straight to the heavenly world without going through other levels of the spirit world first.
Satan has been able to do whatever he wants to with those spirit people in the level below paradise and people who had never gone beyond their national boundaries-he can take them off to hell. But I overcame all of that. I restored all the married couples, restored the couples who had experienced the circumstances of marriage, like Noah’s family, and restored families like Jacob’s.
The Old Testament Age was like the already married couples, the New Testament Age was like the couples who had experienced the circumstances of marriage. Don’t people in America like contract marriages? They want to live together, but they don’t want to create real families. They don’t want to have children. No children. No families. All those different kinds of families must establish themselves just like the twelve tribes were established in Jacob’s lineage. They all should unite and be an offering to God. That is the 36-couple blessed families. Actually, the Cain and Abel types failed to unite in the 36-couple blessed families, but through the 72 couples, the condition of the unity between the Cain side and Abel sides was made.
What do the 72-couple blessed families represent? There were 72 elders from the Israelite people centering on Moses, the chosen people of Israel who fled from Egypt. Starting from the twelve families of Jacob, going through the positions of the 72 elders and expanding to the number 120, there were 120 disciples at the time of Jesus. Those 120 disciples represented the twelve tribes. They represented the number twelve on the national level, centering on Jesus. When the Holy Spirit descended at the time of the Pentecost, the spirit was a mother’s spirit. Because Jesus, who was the father spirit, had gone to the spirit world, the mother spirit had to descend to the earth and suffer the pain of giving birth to her children.
Ever since the Holy Spirit first descended, the history of Christianity has developed on a spiritual foundation without having a physical foundation. Because they have progressed only on the basis of a spiritual foundation, Christians have never had a concrete foundation like the people of Israel in the Old Testament Age did. The people of Israel at least had a nation at the time that they were the center of the providence. Christianity, however, has never had a nation with a sense of national unity like the people of Israel had. Christians have been like wanderers. Even putting aside the period of Roman Empire, Christians always have been persecuted and shed blood wherever they pioneered.
Christian blood had to be shed to break down walls. Jesus had to shed his blood, therefore, those who follow Jesus on the national-level foundation must also shed blood. All races must make the sacrificial offering of blood. They should all make indemnity conditions to go beyond their national boundaries. Britain, America and France are nations that have made indemnity conditions to break down their national boundaries.
At the time of the Second World War, the relationship between Britain, America and France was parallel to the relationship between Japan, Germany and Italy. Britain was the Eve nation on the heavenly side. Japan was the Eve nation on the satanic side. Japanese people believed in many gods, such as Amaterasu-omi-kami. When Japan won victories in the Pacific, and occupied Vietnam, Singapore and other parts of Asia within six months, Hitler thought that if Germany allied itself with Japan they could swallow the entire world together. So an alliance was formed between Japan, Germany and Italy, and they fought against Britain and her allies.
Britain was a mother nation, the mother of America. France was the archangel nation. The archangel nation on the satanic side was Italy. All six nations fought in World War II, and these allied nations representing Christian culture won. On the foundation of the victory of those three nations on the heavenly side, the Second Advent of Christ could occur.
Jesus unified the spiritual world, but owing to his crucifixion he could not unify the physical world. At a crucial point in history, when the national-level foundation was expanding to the worldwide foundation, the True Father had to appear. The True Father, Christ at the Second Advent, had to appear and complete his mission within seven years. Everything should have been over by 1952. If all Catholics and Protestants had accepted the word of God and received the blessing, the whole world could have been restored in seven years. The things you are learning now are what Catholics and Protestants were supposed to have learned then. Now, the mission of Ambassadors for Peace is being done on behalf of those Catholics and Protestants. Ambassadors for Peace must teach others in their nations and even give them the blessing. The blessing is the most frightening weapon one can ever have against Satan. Do you understand?
We have come to the age when we can bless the head of a nation and all its people in one day upon the foundation that has been made throughout thousands of years of suffering history. Now we have reached the age when we can easily win over people in the heavenly and earthly worlds. However, the spiritual and physical worlds are not completely blessed yet. We must bless them. The earth is the realm of Adam and the heavenly world is the archangelic realm. Our ancestors are in the archangelic realm. Due to the fall, when Adam was sixteen, his body became connected to, and came to belong to Satan. Then he started to procreate. Our ancestors are the results of that procreation.
I have therefore had to make indemnity conditions ever since I was sixteen, and have finally accomplished worldwide victory. At the same age as Adam was when he fell, I received my calling from God.
Those who are blessed must not assume that they received the blessing because they have done something special or right for God. I made the foundation for men to change their blood lineage through their wives. I have bequeathed to the blessed families the victorious foundation I have been making since I was sixteen. For three years, after the blessing, blessed husbands must serve their wives as if their wives were their mothers. They must think as if their wives had given birth to them. Without their wives, they could not have new lives and a new lineage. The relationship between blessed husbands and wives change. First the wives are in the position of their mothers, then their elder sisters and finally their younger sisters who need protection and care. They must indemnify the position of the Archangel who could not protect Eve.
When the blessing was first given, three years of living in the way explained above would have been considered almost nothing. A husband and wife could not live together for seven years after the blessing ceremony. They had to set up indemnity conditions to live together. How easy things are these days!
As can be seen in history, when two nations were at war, the nation that won often took away everything and sometimes killed everyone from the nation that lost; women and children were often not killed. The women and children whose lives were spared might have ended up becoming slaves in their enemy’s nation. Being slaves in their enemy’s nation was not necessarily bad. If they became very loyal slaves, the citizens of the nation would want to have them as daughters-in-law, concubines or wives. In that way, their lineage would still survive generation after generation and their lineage could still be part of the history of God’s providence.
One must go up starting from the servant of servant’s position. What kind of people can go up to the position of servant from the position of servant of servant? Women have to indemnify the sins of the past. By paying indemnity, women and their children can go through the eight stages of liberation. The three-year separation period our members had to pass through is in accordance with the historical indemnity course.
Things don’t move if you don’t make effort. You cannot just do whatever you feel like doing. You must pay indemnity. All those closed and crossed lines should be opened up and made into parallel lines. Who can do this? You could never do it on your own. I am trying to liberate everyone by paying the price….
Women are the second self of True Mother: women can be seen collectively as one person. Adam, Jesus, and Christ at the Second Advent are collectively one person-Adam. Who is Adam? Not all people are Adam; all people are children of the Archangel. Do you understand?
Isn’t Christianity the religion of the bride? They are saying, “Our bridegroom, please come!” Christianity is the bride religion, not a bridegroom. God is looking for Eve.
In the Unification Church, women of the world have served the Lord of the Second Advent. You must love the Lord of the Second Advent more than anyone else in the world. Have you heard of lovesickness? You must feel that you cannot be fully alive unless you can see me. Even men should cry because of a desire to see me. For men, I represent their father, God, elder brother or an uncle whom they care about the most.
I teach women how they should live their lives, to keep their sexual purity. No matter how desperate women have been over me, even if they threatened to kill themselves over me, I’ve never taken advantage of them. They are my younger sisters. I have opened ways for them to be engaged and married, to be mothers, grandmothers and finally to be in the position of queens. After you receive the blessing and pass through total indemnification, you women can go on to reach the position of queens. How different are present queens’ lives from what they were like in the past? Aren’t things much more civilized now? We have the Internet, and e-mail systems that enable us to communicate anywhere in the world with whomever we wish. Such a time has come….
What is great about True Mother is not that she is better looking than others or that she has, for instance, more eyes than other people, or anything special in that way. She is the same as anyone else on earth. However, she had to come from a particular background. Her family had to have an only daughter for three generations. An only daughter for three generations….
She has no brothers and sisters. Therefore, it is easier for her to be more single-minded. Originally, she should have been from a family that has an only daughter for seven generations. I was supposed to choose that kind of family. Could I just have let any woman take the role of Mother? She had to be someone who matched the conditions determined by Heaven. Do you understand? In terms of religious faith, she should have had the background of having gone through three different types of faith. She should stand in the spiritual foundation believing for several decades that the Second Advent of Christ would come as a person on earth. True Mother’s mother — Dae Mo Nim — was such a person. She went through three different Christian denominations, starting with the Sung Ju [Holy Lord] Church in Chulsan, the Inside theBelly Church and the New Jesus Church. Considering all the conditions that had to be met, do you think it was easy to find True Mother or not?
Some of the Unification Church members who did not know about this wanted to be True Mother themselves. They opened their clothes and showed me their breasts, doing all kinds of crazy things to lure me. How strongly those women pushed me! You have no idea. But I never responded to any of them at all. One must keep one’s sexual purity.
I would like to tell you all about these things in more detail. I could do it in one day in the spirit world but here it might take several years of explanation. That’s why I don’t explain; do you understand? In the spirit world, I can just explain about things like that just once, that’s all I need to do. But here, it takes several decades and even then I might not be able to finish…. What’s more, I don’t want to reveal heavenly secrets to people who cannot cope with them. That will just cause a big problem. That’s why God hasn’t told people either.
According to the report from Heung Jin, 130 well-known people in Christian history, including the twelve disciples of Jesus, did not know that God was their Parent. Even if they were to ask if God is their Parent, He wouldn’t tell them. If they pushed forward more seriously, God would disappear. He doesn’t deal with them. Such secrets, such heavenly or historical secrets are supposed to be resolved and revealed by True Parents. God isn’t supposed to tell people directly. Men in the Unification Church do not oppose my will even if I mobilize their wives: they have to cook for themselves and take care of their children alone. Even if I told you to take care of beggars on the street, you should not complain. Do you understand what I mean? You are the descendants of the Archangel (Lucifer). I went through a painstaking course to save you. In order for you to pay me back for saving your lives, you must digest anything given from me with joyful hearts. That is the reality. That is why no matter how they feel inside, the Unification Church members cannot oppose what I do. Their original mind knows it.
You will know how much God loves True Parents once you go to the spirit world. You should think about True Parents even when we aren’t around. What do you think? Do you suppose God has been looking for True Parents with an unchanging heart and love for thousands of years or maybe not?
Today is a good day. We must overcome the troublesome problems in the spirit world and put it in good order. I must solve them when I go to the spirit world. Based on my knowledge of the Principle, I will gather people one by one. I will have to educate them one by one, again. You should not think you are going there all together with me. Do you want to go to the spirit world with me or without me? I don’t want anyone to come with me. Haven’t you hurt me enough in this world? Haven’t you broken my heart enough? When I asked you to work, you said, “You didn’t feed us enough to work. You should feed us, first.” That was how you reacted. Think about how you have been to me. What if I said to God that I couldn’t carry out the mission He wanted me to do because I was too hungry? It was as if I had to cross mountains, tens of thousands of feet high, cross seas and wilderness, places full of crocodiles and anacondas. I have come this far after having been through indescribable hardships.
You call Hyun Jin gun elder brother. Didn’t I say that I restored the elder brother through indemnity? Did you hear that I fulfilled that? Do you think I have perfected myself or not? [You have perfected yourself.] How about you? [Not perfected yet.] When are you going to perfect yourselves? If you go to the spirit world without first perfecting yourselves, you will meet difficulties. Here, it is possible to let days go by without changing at all. Over there, people shine just like the sun shines. People’s bodies emit light in the spirit world. You should shine with blinding light. When a person with a stronger light appears, people in the spirit world naturally become attracted to him. Things are so transparent and clear there. If you are a 100-watt electric bulb, the light of 10-watt bulbs feel like nothing. You should understand that. You have no accomplishments to be proud of. Of course, some of you may have a good family background and people from your village might respect and love you, but that’s it, isn’t it?
You call me the “True Parent.” Do you know what kind of people True Parents are? Have you served True Parents? You American members don’t even like to serve your own parents. You must be the best of sons, the best of daughters, the best of husbands, the best of wives, the best of fathers, the best of mothers, the best of grandmothers, the best of grandfathers, the best of kings, or the best of queens to be able to serve True Parents. Have you all been like that? Even if you are all of those things and serve True Parents, you still cannot receive a score of 100 in the spirit world. Have you thought of the kind of life I will have with God? Will God follow me or will I follow after God’? Don’t you know I’m asking you a question? [God will follow you.] Have you seen it with your own eyes?
What kind of people are you? No matter how great parents are, if their child becomes a wastrel… You know the story of the prodigal son in the Bible. Even if parents kick their child out of their home, their heart actually feels more toward the problem child than any of the remaining children. They ardently hope that their child will straighten himself up and come back. They would wait for thousands of years if they had to.
Do you think hell should exist or not? Without hell, it would be hard to correct such problems. These days, however, fathers cannot be fathers. Don’t you agree? People don’t care about what their fathers are up to these days…. You Americans don’t think you need your fathers and mothers. You put them in the category of senior citizens and separate them from your lives. What’s wrong with a husband and wife living by themselves free from their parents’ influence? What’s wrong with a young couple living by themselves? Do you think there is heaven only for white couples? There is no such heaven. People from hundreds of different nations live together in one place in heaven.
Participating here isn’t affirmation of anything for you. You might think, “I have participated in the total liberation ceremony with God and I participated in True Father’s prayer, therefore, I’ve won a great victory!” That kind of thinking is inadmissible. You stand in a fearful position. How serious it is! For tens of thousands of years God has longed to see Adam and Eve. Don’t you think God wanted them to be a good brother and sister to each other? Do you think God wanted to see their couple broken up? Even if the entire globe had had to be destroyed through war, God would have spared Adam and Eve. You should think about it as families, between husbands and wives, and with your children-how seriously have you thought about God’s situation? You must now revolutionize yourselves.
How far are you willing to follow me? In Korea, members want to go fishing with me. They are so excited but they don’t catch anything. I don’t understand why they don’t study fishing enough to catch any. When you fish alone, you should have your sinker heavy and cast out a long distance. You should reel the line in very quietly after you cast. Some fish can see ten or even a hundred meters. Big ones can see very well with their big eyes. They are almost like bears. If you do it right, though, they will take your hook; but you just sit there all day!
I can find fish by casting lines many times here and there. As soon as a fish is caught on my hook, I quickly catch it then borrow someone else’s rod and cast out another line instantly-because I know there are at least two or three fish together in the same place.
I told you a while ago that the providence of salvation is restoration through paying indemnity, didn’t I? Restoration through indemnity is accomplished by setting up conditions. The restoration of a family or of a nation is decided by the conditions people make. That is the way it is. Those in the spirit world are waiting for me to go and liberate them; but I hope I can sleep for a long time once I get there.
Those of you have a birthday today raise your hands. Come on out. Is there only one? How about people whose birthdays are sometime this week? What’s today? [Thursday.] It’s Thursday, so people who have your birthdays beginning from April 1 to April 7 should come out. Those people…. There is so much fruit, you should pack some in your jackets and take it home. You should take as much as you can carry. You should have feasts at home. Do you know what this is? What part of the world produces the best papaya? Hawaii! Are there any Hawaiian natives here? Come out. Give him the big watermelon. Among those in the audience, he who thinks he is the tallest come out. Bring another one as big as him-that one. (Cheers) You don’t need to fight over it. Come out one by one. We have enough for everyone.
After a full bow was offered, the occasion concluded with three cheers of Mansei.
[Originally published in Today’s World April 2002]